sábado, 22 de septiembre de 2012

Monograph on Biodiesel

Aims and objectives of the University Introduction to Biodiesel Principles of operation of the diesel engine Fuels and their environmental impact Interview with researchers Visit the Bank of engines Results of a public survey Biodiesel: history, present and future in Uruguay and the world This paper's main objective is the study of one of the many research in the Faculty of Engineering of the University of the Republic, as it is the study of biodiesel (renewable fuel similar to diesel), developed by the Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Production (IIMPI), always keeping to the University, the tasks that it develops and the technological and social impact that they entail. 1. Aims and objectives of the University Before fully with the study of the research process, we consider vital to make a brief introduction to the different activities of the University of the Republic. To comprehensively understand the various tasks performed, is quoted below the first two articles of the Organic Law of the University of the Republic (1958). Article 1-General Regime. The University of the Republic is a public legal entity, which will operate as an autonomous entity in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Constitution, this Act and other laws and regulations that dictate it. ---------- Article 2-Purpose of the University- The University will be responsible for public higher education at all levels of culture, art education, empowerment to exercise scientific professions and the exercise of any other functions assigned by law. It is also incumbent, through all its organs, in their respective fields, enhance, disseminate and defend the culture, promote and protect scientific research and artistic activities, and contribute to the study of the problems of general interest and favor their public opinion to defend moral values ​​and principles of justice, freedom, welfare, rights of the human person and the democratic-republican form of government. ---------- Through these articles (especially the latter), is that we can distinguish within the aims and objectives of our university, the following activities: higher education in cultural and artistic activities. professional training in various branches of the activities mentioned in the previous section, as well as enabling them to develop relevant tasks. Encouraging the development of new processes and cultural research and its dissemination in society for develop outreach processes, studying the problems facing society, to try to find a solution or at soon reduce their severity, and defend moral values, human rights and social welfare. As regards the Faculty of Engineering, it carries out research in basic and technological matters, but not separately as increasingly research processes are intertwined with each other, often being difficult to separate the different areas of study. What is the extension? University extension is making efforts to make science, technology, art, and knowledge available to the country and its people. The 2nd article gives the extension, at least equal standing teaching and research. The idea is then that as far as possible the University can give back to society, everything has provided. We therefore conclude that one of the main objectives of the University, is inserted together with science, technology and society to form a sort of symbiosis in which all to benefit. By this we mean that the University meets the vital role as a link between the other members of this loop, thus conducts research processes to enable the development of new technologies, which are used by or for society as The lowering of costs in the production process or the decrease in the spread of disease, and finally back to close this loop through retribution by society at the University. 2. INTRODUCTION TO BIODIESEL The production of alternative fuels from fossils from renewable substances in recent years gained a significant momentum worldwide. The motivations were, among others, the depletion of fossil indefectible in a relatively short time scale considered historical, the periodic oil crisis and the greenhouse effect caused by the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In IIMPI aware of the importance of these two factors to which our country is added to the lack of oil, beginning in 1989, a work aimed at obtaining a diesel fuel substitute. This fuel has a demand in our country than the volume supplied by crude oil processed in the refinery, so be partially imported and manufactured. Note that the diesel engine by its design is capable of functioning with various combustible substances, while combustion quality and is suitable only if they meet certain values ​​of characteristics such as viscosity, cetane number, points boiling, among others, established by international standards. The proposed project was based on a popular reaction that comes from a vegetable oil and a primary alcohol called transesterification. By this reaction fractionate the molecules constituting the oil (glyceryl esters) High mass to form each, three alcoholic radical esters employed. The esters so obtained have characteristics similar to those of diesel fuel, provided that the conversion of reactants to products is close to 100%. Achieving this goal has been the aim of the research work carried out in the IIMPI. The variables that govern the kinetics of this reaction to achieve a high degree of conversion and the debug mode of the product are key to its compliance with the specifications to certify the quality of combustion. The lab is working IIMPI with soybean oil, sunflower and rapeseed degomados, achieving a conversion of around 98% in product that meets the aforementioned characteristics. It added that the raw materials used do not contain sulfur gasoil unlike consumed in our country. At present it has a volume of 70 liters processed at laboratory scale, with minimal infrastructure, for test benches tested in the Institute. This project also considered the importance of tuning a laboratory technique, the possibility of implementing a production technology on a larger scale. So we designed a plant consisting of modules, capable of producing up to 100 liters per day, relatively inexpensive and easy to operate. The module design makes possible the extension of dimensions. He considered himself the installation of similar plants in agricultural areas, suppliers of oil to the oil supply, would close a cycle in agro-energy benefits that would entail. To this end a project was presented to PDT in February this year. The environmental, economic and social Biodiesel: an opportunity for agricultural or something else? The partial substitution of diesel fuel by a product of the transformation of oilseeds is an alternative that analyze and implement several countries. In Uruguay there are favorable conditions to continue that trend. While it will be necessary to further analyze the issue in all its aspects, is the environmental impact which can be crucial to the definition. For more than a decade of biodiesel is spoken in Uruguay, and the opportunities and challenges that this alternative fuel to oil can offer. This potential is not only related to environmental improvement, but also includes economic and social dimensions. Although the issue has been dusted off several times, still kept in the drawer, without integrating the agendas of politicians, institutions, companies, the press and most of the Uruguayans. This situation seems to have changed. One example is Bill discussed in Parliament (Bill presented by Senator Jorge Larrañaga. See minutes of the meeting of the Senate of May 7, 2002). The search for alternative energy sources to oil is not a recent phenomenon in the world. Based on economic issues in the oil crisis of '70 was incorporated environmental issues. International treaties, including those related to climate change, have reflected pressures from various sectors to investigate and implement alternative energy sources to fossil fuels. In the particular case of biodiesel, the discovery was made a century ago and has been used for years in Europe and North America. The high oil prices, the crisis in agriculture, the low international price of oil, are among the factors that have contributed to give a further highlight to biodiesel. Sensitizers elements of society, as the lead health crisis in La Teja and initial link with Uruguayan naphtha, the existence of foreign investors interested in producing this fuel in the country, contributed to this process. The dimensions of sustainable development In this scenario, biodiesel rises agribusiness as an option for Uruguay for its ability to stimulate agricultural production, create new industries, create new jobs and additional revenue for the state. Furthermore, timidly, peek other advantages. Such is the case of environmental opportunities are partially replace diesel-renewable resource for biofuels-made from renewable raw materials, less "effect" polluting than traditional diesel. In general, in the country are not used to include this perspective in evaluations undertaken by society. The virtues that stem from supply even partially to oil, imported in its entirety, for other fuel produced in the country, means we pay foreign currency versus others chose to leave the country, generating jobs, activity in the Uruguay and a chain of multiplier effects on the domestic economy. There are signs that there is political will to work on this issue, that there is a market demand for this product, producers capable of generating and industrial raw materials involved in processing. These signs are good, but there are still restrictions that may prevent this potential opportunity is no longer just an economic business and becomes a "sustainable energy option." The traditional concerns associated with imported oil and the eventual Ancap inertia may be some restrictions. The cost of biodiesel is a major hindrance to production, according to the Bureau of Agricultural Planning and Policy of the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries. But these analyzes do not consider the set of multiplier effects on the economy and improving the balance of foreign exchange. And do not include the increase in social benefits produced by the positive environmental externalities of this fuel, relative to oil. Therefore, a thorough analysis should include all aspects when evaluating the replacement of oil by biodiesel. In addition to the above, this opportunity may go beyond a temporary situation: according to international experts, the price of oil will increase in the coming decades, as a source of renewable energy and the scarcity and / or more expensive sources readily available. In conditions where oil prices are high, we pose the following questions: What will be a priority destination for Uruguayan grains: the domestic or external, how to ensure continuity of supply? It is expected that new problems arise on the fly. Sue research to achieve solutions. In short, the future of a new agro-industrial complex is in the hands of the public sector, research institutions, and other entities in the private sector: farmers and industrialists. How much are Uruguayan society for the negative environmental impacts of diesel? Emissions from diesel engines fed oil and other substances containing CO2 (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen, particulates, etc.), chemical very harmful to human health, which can cause irritation and stimulate the development of tumors. Sulfur dioxide, when dissolved in water produces sulfuric acid, one of the main components of acid rain. What improves biodiesel? Lower contribution to global warming of the atmosphere, the CO2 from combustion of ester does not increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, because the CO2 released by the motors corresponds to that is removed from the atmosphere by crop stage the process of photosynthesis. Biodiesel is free of sulfur compounds, allowing the use of oxidation catalysts that remove particulate matter from combustion gases. The particulates are drawn breath, deposited in the alveoli, favoring the development of tumors. This is a very important aspect to spread diesel vehicles for use in cities. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide are diminished when using biodiesel. Biodiesel and its use Biodiesel is an ester that can be made from different types of oils: sunflower, rapeseed, soybean, palm oil, animal fats and oils up from the food industry. Used pure or blended with petroleum diesel. The most practical way to do this is by replacing up to 20% of diesel oil with the ester (B20), not being necessary to adapt or change the motors. 3. Principles of operation of the diesel engine As is known, the first general concept that comes from studying or just find information about biodiesel is that it is a simile Diesel fuel and therefore applicable in engines working with that fuel. Due to this fact, then we will try to give a brief description of Diesel engines, in order to have a general idea of ​​its operation and features. Note that it is intended to give an exhaustive description, not too technical, because that's not our goal. Combustion engine In the gas power cycle, the working fluid for the entire cycle is a gas. The automobile engine of spark ignition, diesel engines and gas turbines are familiar examples of conventional devices operating in gas cycle. In all these machines power is supplied by burning fuel within the boundaries of the system are internal combustion engines. Because of this combustion process the working fluid composition changes of air and fuel to combustion products during the course of the cycle. However, considering that in the air nitrogen predominates is subjected to severe chemical reactions in the combustion chamber, the working fluid is very similar to the air all the time. Although internal combustion engines operating on one mechanical cycle (the piston returns to its start position at the end of c / revolution), the working fluid is not subjected to a complete thermodynamic cycle. It is released from the machine in any point in the cycle (as exhaust) instead of returning it to the initial state. Working in an open cycle is the characteristic of all internal combustion engines. Brief overview of reciprocating machines Despite its simplicity, the reciprocating engine (a piston-cylinder device) is a rare inventions has proven very flexible and have a wide variety of applications. It is the powerhouse of a wide variety of cars, trucks, small planes, ships and electric power generators, as well as many other devices. The basic components of a reciprocating machine shown in figure 1. The plunger in the cylinder is alternated between two fixed positions called upper dead center (TDC: the position of the smaller piston when it is in the cylinder volume) and bottom dead center (PMI piston position when forming the largest volume in the cylinder). The distance between the PMS and PMI is the longest that the piston can travel in one direction and is called a motor race. The piston diameter is called caliber. The air or a fuel air mixture enters the cylinder through the intake valve, and combustion products are expelled from the cylinder through the exhaust valve. Figure 1. Nomenclature for reciprocating engines The minimum volume formed in the cylinder when the piston is at TDC is referred clearance volume (Figure 2). The volume displaced by the plunger when it moves between TDC and BDC is called displacement volume. The relationship between the maximum volume formed in the cylinder volume and the minimum (clearance) is called the compression ratio of the engine. Figure 2.Volúmenes the movement and clearance of a reciprocating engine The machines are classified as reciprocating spark ignition machines (ECH) or compression ignition machines (EC), depends how you start the combustion process in the cylinder. In ECH machines, combustion of the fuel - air mixture begins with a spark plug. In machines EC fuel-air mixture is compressed as a result autoenciende the mixture above its autoignition temperature. The following will explain the operation of Diesel engines is the machine cycle for CHD. The Diesel cycle The Diesel cycle is the ideal cycle for EC reciprocating machines (machines compression ignition). The EC motor was first proposed by Rudolph Diesel in the 1890s and since 1930 have had an ever increasing application to racing, especially on trucks. The organization of the elements is the same as that of the spark ignition engines, which burn gasoline (also known as gasoline engines), but in the combustion (Diesel cycle, gas oil burning) operating responsive differences . The main difference is in the method of igniting. In spark ignition engines of the fuel-air mixture compressed to a temperature below the autoignition temperature of the fuel, and the combustion process is started by lighting a candle. In EC motors (also known as diesel engines, gas burning oil) the air is compressed to a temperature above the autoignition temperature of the fuel, and the combustion is initiated in contact when fuel is injected into this air hot. Consequently, the plug and the carburetor are replaced by a fuel injector for diesel engines (fig. 3). Figure 3. In diesel engines, the spark plug is replaced by a fuel injector, and only compresses the air during the compression process. In gasoline engines, an air-fuel mixture is compressed during the compression stroke, and compression ratios are limited by the onset of auto-ignition or engine knock. In diesel engines, only air is compressed during the compression stroke, thereby eliminating the possibility of self-ignition. Therefore, the diesel engines are designed to operate at compression ratios much higher, usually between 12 and 24. Avoid the problem of self-ignition has another benefit: many of the demanding requirements gasoline taxes are eliminated in this case, and less refined fuels (and therefore less expensive) can be used in diesel engines. The fuel used is generally gas-oil, denser product than gasoline and has slightly more power for the same volume calorific. The gas-oil is derived from crude oil, was one of the leftovers from distillation into gasoline. As this has a fabulous sale, gas-oil application and ran out just what the oil companies were selling at very low prices. Moreover taxes in all countries tax gasoline (several times the cost of the fuel) did not weigh on gas-oil so strongly. For both reasons has been stimulated the development of Diesel, where today is full and practical application. The increased demand has led to a price rise of origin, and the large increase consumption taxes. Although gas-oil reaches increase both as gasoline, Diesel engines will still cheaper because its performance is superior to explosion (spark ignition). Turns gasoline engines consume 300 to 350 grams of fuel per horsepower-hour, while the Diesel spend 200 to 230 grams of diesel oil per horse-hour. It was common belief that the long gas-fuel oil was a lower class, cheaper than gasoline, being present reality rather the contrary. A modern diesel engine is more responsive to the poor quality of diesel oil, which is one of the explosion to the gasoline used. 4. Fuels and their environmental impact As we know biodiesel is a fuel based on oil and therefore has the advantage over petroleum fuels, which does not generate greenhouse gases. Thus brings consequences explain that the use of petroleum fuels. Photochemical smog In general, the term applies to designate smog pollution atmospheric processes primarily characterized by high opacity and air density. When these processes are intensifying due to the catalytic action of sunlight, which usually occurs in dense developments with certain geographical, speaking of photochemical smog. Temporal evolution of photochemical smog processes The first compounds listed chronologically in an episode of smog are associated with car exhaust: carbon monoxide and nitrogen. The latter, heat start times, is oxidized to NO2, the concentration peak appears in a couple of hours after the monoxide. At lower concentrations of the latter increases the ozone producing the peak value after 5 to 6 hours. So if smog phenomena associated with vehicle emissions, can be inferred time of peak secondary pollutants adding 2 and 6 hours at rush hour, as long as the conditions for the catalyze sunlight. Greenhouse Gases They are named gases that are capable of absorbing infrared radiation and thus cooperate to warming. It is important to note that these are desirable greenhouse gases and as such, inter alia to enable life in their current forms. What is considered a problematic process and in fact is being addressed at the international level is the intensification of the natural greenhouse effect, associated with abnormally rapid increase of the contents of such gases in the atmosphere and their consequences, actual and potential-a level of climate and life on Earth in general. Among the gases that work to the enhanced greenhouse effect are carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, compounds based on chlorofluorocarbon CFC, CO, NO and sulfur dioxide. The most disturbing of these is carbon dioxide, its content is growing by 0.5% per year and can be doubled after 100 years. The increase in carbon dioxide levels is mainly associated with the burning of fossil fuels and massive deforestation. It reforesting achieve little, since most of the contribution comes incidence of man-made emissions (vehicles, smokestacks, factories, etc..). Possible consequences of global warming In the last 150 years there has been a warming of about 1 ° C. One can expect a global warming of between 1 ° to 5 ° C for a carbon dioxide concentration of twice the current. Important to note that the predictions are based on the concentrations of carbon dioxide and no time scale, because the global challenge now is to retain hard-slow-growth of these concentrations. Among the many effects that can be expected in the medium term because of global warming of the earth's surface include: The rise of sea levels, is perhaps the most immediate and most talked about, which is related to most of the world's population lives on or near the coasts. Changes in climate and atmospheric circulation marina. The shift of climatic zones, that strongly conditions the chances of survival of life as it compromises the ability to adapt to change of different living things. Here are some representative graphs of pollution in some parts of the world Figure 1. Evolution of the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere over the course of the years Figure 2. Carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere in different parts of the world with over the years. BRW - Alaska MLO - Mauna Loa, Hawaii SPO - South Pole Figure 3. Evolution of gaseous pollutants in a typical day of smog in LA 5. Interview with researchers At this point the interview realizadaa present researchers: Laura Ma De Martini and Estela La Manna on draft invstigación. Nomenclature: SS: Sebastian Sayas ST: Sebastian Sanchez Traversa AM: Andres Merello ML: Ma Laura De Martini EL: Estela La Manna SS: What is biodiesel? EL: It is a type of fuel, diesel alternative, ie using all engines called after its inventor, Diesel engines. While this claim has replace or at least supplement the use of mixtures, it must meet the different requirements that diesel fuel is present. SS: The prefix bio, what do you mean? EL: It is good to clarify that the name we invented it comes from previous research, although we call esterified oil substance is commonly known as biodiesel, this prefix is ​​basically related to the raw materials that are used as are the various renewable and organic substances from living matter (plants or seeds), and probably this prefix is ​​used to distinguish fossil diesel is not renewable. As we will see later, the raw materials used are alcohol and oil are of biological origin, ie are derived from living matter. For example the alcohol is obtained from grape by fermentation processes or other processes such as distillation, while the oil is obtained from various sources such as oilseeds and even animal fat. SS: How do you get? EL: I told them that is an alternative fuel, and besides being alternative has the advantage over traditional diesel be given a renewable fuel that is derived from renewable raw materials, while the current diesel fuel is a fuel a product obtained as fossil oil. Ie diesel is reached after a process of refining oil, while biodiesel is produced through a chemical reaction from renewable raw materials. This is somehow an advantage over fossil fuel that we know will be exhausted in finite time, say that provisions indicate that they could get completed in a span of 50 to 100 years. SS: What material is used and how it is obtained? EL: As mentioned the main raw materials used in the production process of biodiesel are: i) an oil ii) an alcohol, and iii) a catalyst. We particularly have worked primarily with vegetable oil, but you can work with animal fat or any other fatty substance, ie having the chemical composition of fats. The oils are glyceryl esters, or a mixture of several of them, regardless of the source of vegetable oil, say, regardless of the oilseed to be used an oil is obtained, of course in greater or lesser proportions depending on the seed used, oil resulting in greater or lesser proportions of glyceryl esters. I do not remember exactly how many, but they are around ten components, but the predominant three or four, but the bottom line is that everyone is glyceryl esters. One of the most important features to consider is that biodiesel is produced from raw materials that exist in our own country, and therefore do not need to import it, as it is necessary to import oil. SS: Do these "glyceryl esters" of what seeds are obtained, perhaps sunflower? EL: As you know the edible oil is obtained from different types of seeds such as sunflower, but also from the olive fruit (olives), soy, etc. These oils can serve to develop but are biodiesel disadvantage of high cost of production, you can also use other oils like peanut, palm oil or using much the Brazilians. Say which depends on the seed crop more profitable, less complex, and require less care. That is why in order to use it to develop the biodiesel is not necessary to carry out the selection that it is necessary to edible oils in which affect various requirements such as taste, texture, color, etc. SS: So what are essentially the same one buys oil as edible oil and biodiesel need to implement? EL: Yes, it's the same, what happens is that the cooking oil you buy at the supermarket has undergone a process of refining, and also choose the seeds that give a better flavor because it gives the flavor is small concentrations of flavoring substances or sometimes the oil itself also has it, and clear, so the difference between the taste of a sunflower oil and one olive. But in exchange for biodiesel raw material is oil, no need at all stages of refining, but only a first step known as degumming or desgomando. At the beginning of the refining process, the oil comprises not only the above-mentioned glyceryl esters which are primarily oil components, but also for other substances as are fofolípidos licitinas or organic compounds containing phosphorus and must be removed, and even these substances removed are exploited for other tasks. After this stage, in which said oil is degummed or degummed, the oil is already processed to be used as raw material for production of biodiesel. SS: What is the reaction? EL: Well, if reacted glyceryl esters with a methyl or ethyl alcohol (food consumption), by stirring, achieves a kind of emulsion. This reaction occurs even at room temperature but by itself is very slow. To accelerate a catalyst is added and becomes a base catalyst. For biodiesel, it requires a very good conversion, more than 98%. In this reaction we get basically two products: methyl esters and glycerin, the first is what we are looking for (biodiesel) and the second is considered a by-product which is very important at the industry level is important to emphasize, because glycerin can be commercialized and lower the costs. At the industry level is used and goes, but for uses such as pharmaceuticals and cosmetics must be purified. Then the product obtained Takes a refining process, because it is emulsified with some of the alcohol she had put too much, about 40% of the estequeométrico, then takes the unreacted methyl alcohol for later use. Everything is carried out in a series of stages rather laborious, but especially that takes time. Finally, you should make an assessment of biodiesel for compliance with international standards regarding fuel and specifically for diesel. SS: What is the distribution of production costs, in general? EL: This issue we have not addressed in depth, because we bought or gave us the raw material, and even the oilers have given us fully refined oils since then remove oil degumming line and also brought many problems is more expensive to stop the manufacturing process to obtain the process oil after degumming, letting the process is carried out completely. When we decided to buy the oil in large quantities was not much difference in cost between the oil and degomando only fully refined. Ideally availability have our entire production line, which would plant seeds, extract the oil (which is made by a pressing process), treatment of the oil in the first stage degumming and then begin the production process biodiesel, but for now this is a project and nothing else. Bearing in mind not only oil but also other raw materials like alcohol and the catalyst, we can conclude that the biodiesel production process is very expensive, as long as we are talking about production in laboratory. SS: Do you think that mass production would lessen the costs? EL: Yes, certainly, and that mass production should start in the production of oilseeds to produce oil, and finish in the chemical reaction to reach the final product. This would be achieved at considerably cheaper costs, making the biodiesel in a competitive product. Also another important factor to consider when evaluating the cost of production is the fact that biodiesel is a hydrocarbon and therefore is exempt from taxes on oil derivatives suffer. Referring to the previous point, we can classify the future biodiesel market in two: i) a market for their own production, and ii) a market for marketing in gasoline stations. The first market refers to a farmer, that in order to meet the demand for oil that require agricultural machines, take out a small biodiesel production plant, which is the case in which the producer would be tax free. While the second main problem would market the various taxes that would be added. For these reasons is that we point to the first option, trying to meet the demands of medium rural producers. SS: What are the main characteristics of a diesel fuel must meet to be sold? EL: Once the final product, it will only be able to be marketed if they comply with a number of international standards. Some of these requirements are: boiling point curves with a maximum of less than 340 ° C. diesel sulfur content below 1% (it is clear that biodiesel does not have this element as harmful) conversion process of close to 100% (98% is required) For me the hardest and in turn the requirement to be adjusted more, is conversion. SS: Is there a history of similar studies in Uruguay or elsewhere in the world?, If so, do they share and exchange information and experiences with those responsible for these? EL: Currently running major plants in Europe, such as Germany, Austria and Italy, and also in other countries like Canada and the U.S.. In the U.S. even subsidize the producer. SS: Do you encourage? EL: Yes, because there is always the EPA above all, is what sets environmental standards and is very demanding. So as this product is one of the things they are most interested, looking to study as pollution decreases when using it. One advantage of biodiesel is that it lowers the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. Petroleum fuels have been incorporated into the atmosphere an amount of carbon that was not photosynthesized, why should afforest much for the carbon cycle is complete. But if you burn something already absorbed the seed will absorb and then as you close the cycle, while CO2 is produced in the combustion process, it is absorbed by the plants themselves used for the production of biodiesel both plants which is obtained for oil seeds as well as the alcoholates. So probably decrease, and then also decreases combustion emissions. SS: What are the main objectives and goals of this research? EL: One of our main goals is that it can be developed by small plants, especially in rural areas as well as a member of a potential energy matrix, the place that needs attention, and not always depend on oil, so Go broadening the spectrum and use. SS: Is the production of biodiesel, would be simpler? EL: Yes, much easier! Even biodiesel production plants are much cheaper than oil refineries. SS: Who makes up the interdisciplinary team? EL: Interdisciplinary yet, although the project is designed to be more comprehensive and starting to seed and need the help of producer and agronomist. Then we need accountants to the economic. While no different institutes involved in this project, involving various sectors themselves IIMPI. SS: What are the professional qualifications of the people involved in the investigation? EL: Well most people who work in this Maria Laura and I went, that the two of us start it and have followed lung when he worked in the research. Now test the engine, and will intervene Mine which is a young mechanical engineer, professor of applied thermodynamics and Miguel Balbi who is also an engineer who is a teacher in generators and energy. But this will be mostly for the second stage of the study of motor behavior. The first stage was mostly between us, she (Maria Laura) went to the School of Chemistry but has no title, I am a chemical engineer. ST: When did you decide to start? ML: We have a previous work that only vegetable oil is unchanged. That work began roughly in 1981, then did the biodiesel below. ST: What are the steps and what are they? ML: Well the first thing he did was investigate the reaction, try different alcohols, catalysts, and optimize all parameters, it was pretty. Then we carry change of scale, fuel specification to be brief, test engine and the purification step. Well, we are now at the stage of engine and emission study. AM: How many hours per week you devote to the project? ML: And I would say that between the two, about thirty hours AM: Are other institutions besides the IMPI? ML: No, not now participating addition IIMPI other institutes. AM: Where are made the practicalities? ML: The tests are done here at the Institute. Right now we are in a first stage in which the experiments and tests are carried out in a "test". Subsequently undergoes trials called path, which will be tested engines actually performing tasks. AM: And that is called "test"? ML: The test motor is a fixed AM: Do you have right here? ML: Down in the third basement. That's where we make it work. But after that instance and what you taste your first with a fuel, it is assumed that a second stage called test route may be for agricultural machinery, automobile, etc.. AM: Do you have something to do with the type of vehicle that is to be used? ML: In this case, all that is required to be a substitute for diesel oil, otherwise you can not use. ST: Do you consider the technology available at the University is sufficient to develop the different tasks that require investigation? ML: For the purely research have had, if not sufficient, at least very good technology and great imagination, because that part is pure research to implementation we have had no problems, the problems we have to substitute hours / person, that surely. Everything we had, somehow, had to be replaced with work hours. It might have had a different style of work, if not higher, but with more modern techniques, but in fact it had not, as I say hours / person they replaced were the various shortcomings AM: How would compare his research with those made on the same subject by other institutes of other countries? ML: Actually, if you read any text from another country you realize that we have come to the same conclusions. We present a project to establish this in the countryside where we know that is more applicable for an economic issue. If this does not leave we have other proposals that maybe we can take and that if we multidisciplinary work. What happens in these circumstances is not given. Refine the research much, very much, and then there would say that we have followed a line of first world working. AM: How long have dedicated percentage to the investigation and the trial? ML: What research? I would say several times the operating hours, but I tell you without a doubt. The research, 'I can not so easily quantified, but is many times more than you are testing because even normal fuel tests are routine, are long, all you want, but are routine. Of course there is a person who has to see that the engine is good, disarm. etc. These things take time, but never as research. AM: What are the odds they have had in the investigation, if they are locked, etc? ML: Oh, yeah. We've been stuck in a moment, because we came to take a path where we did and we distillation crystallized intermediates. We had a great mess, and spent months and months to retrace the trail. Of course, after you learned that you solved it twenty times. I believe in what we can be pretty calm is about work and the quality of what we got. AM: During the course of the investigation, what have been the major adversities which have run?, Have you suffered some kind of accident in the lab? ML: So far nothing. I hope that nothing will happen please. AM: The funding for this project, is conducted by private entities or by the University of the Republic? Do you expect to obtain other funding? ML: Right now in the initial exception that the ASCHIC funded (or wanted), this is being fully funded by the Institute. We hope to have funding sources, because we present a project in what was the CONECIT and have separate talks with several producers. From here onwards we need to invest. AM: Can you calculate the price of biodiesel? ML: I'm going to say that is the price at this time can not be calculated. If we could estimate, but it would be a real price. AM: Is it expensive? ML: No, it would not be expensive. AM: You need to do some kind of modification to diesel engines to use this fuel? if yes, is it expensive? ML: The concept that I try to give to you is that, just as much preparation and purity in the product so much, so much care, so much history to get a product with a high conversion (almost 100%), and a series of things to be discussed with Estela, serves not just to modify the engine. What if suddenly any parts that can suffer corrosion of biodiesel, if you have copper or some metal. Suddenly you have to make certain adjustments in the operation but not in terms of shaping the engine that is designed to make it operate in such conditions. AM: I was thinking that as the gas, maybe they would have to do some modification. ML: No, normally not. For a common diesel and wild, with a standard nozzle, even modern, capable that there is anything that does not work, is intended to replace him. AM: Considering that there are several types of fuels, are similar concepts could be applied to implement a biological metaphor for gasoline and other fuels? ML: Well first, I do not know if a biological analogy, but we here studied for many years, before this, the replacement of gasoline with ethanol, which is renewable. There is a problem with the carburetor that can be adjusted with the ignition and you can actually think of overheating, but that kind of thing we're talking about. AM: What economic impact would expect with this new product? ML: Where turns more easily, a little in the way of working, is in the rural sector, but from that to which access is another matter. In regard to acceptance, I do not know, because if they tell you that a product is tested under international standards, their sale is regulated by ANCAP or representative, and is sold in a season and you have the assurance that you sell it at half price, can you use it. AM: Many times there is a big gap between theory and practice do you guys think that the inclusion of biodiesel in Uruguay, will be possible? ML: Well in that way we are, on the one hand the project presented is a way to implement it in our environment. No need much money, about $ 50,000, but as we have gone a long way, using it may well serve. First, it is clear that the value of sunflower seed is regulated by the international price, so if your a producer did not pay that price it exported. So our focus is on the production of biodiesel for domestic consumption of each farmer. ST: I recently left a publication in a newspaper of Paysandú about the possibility of setting up a plant in rural. Do you have anything to do with it? ML: Yes, in the Administration wanted to use Paysandú the fleet of cars. There is also some intended (we're still not too sure) of the IMM using three or four trucks, to know the cost, which I think is very correct. AM: Well, congratulations on your work, and thank you very much for the time you have given us. ML: No, no, see you soon, and to orders. Visit the bank of engines We visited the engine test bench, which is in the third basement of our faculty. Guided us in the tour: Moses Baceda, Walter Gabriel Ojeda and War, we could see some trials conducted and explained how everything worked. The bank has: a diesel model MB OM352 (as they said it belonged to a public city bus). adjustable load axis. a cooling system and a precision balance. In each test, samples are taken and then get power against consumption graphs, parametric with speed. First a container filled with fuel which is placed on the scale, then adjusts the load to provide adequate starting torque and starts the engine. It fixed the speed of it, and in the control panel that has the power load monitors, speed and other parameters, to thereby make measurements. Two trials are complete, the first with fuel oil (diesel) and the second with biodiesel, and then compare the results. The operating principle of the hydraulic load, connects the load to the axis of the motor shaft inside the load of moving one kind of vanes that "beat" a variable volume of water. The result is adjustable by a pair of water flow and as a result of this friction, there is a heating fluid. This heat is dissipated in the cooling system and then through a closed circuit, the water returns to the interior of the blades. Overview of the test, the load can be seen, the engine and the fuel balance. Control Panel of shit. Precision scale measuring the canister with fuel. Perspective, the background is the cooling system. Results of a public survey Bearing in mind the fact that society is ultimately who should know the tasks they perform, University of the Republic, as well as who has the final decision regarding acceptance of biodiesel is that the work of this group report decided to carry out a public inquiry, to somehow obtain the opinion of our society. The survey tube main objectives the following points: the views of those members of the Uruguayan society, about the functions performed by the University of the Republic, and the tasks which it considers should play, as well as, conducting a research process on knowledge of people about the existence of a renewable fuel, such as biodiesel, and relieve their views on the subject. To try to cover a broad spectrum of people in terms of age, sex, socioeconomic status, level of education, etc, is that it was decided to carry out this survey in a public place, and high concurrency by all the sectors of our society. An event which we believe has all these characteristics, was the famous Villa Biarritz fair or similar. Finally, the survey was conducted at the fair as well as in other parts of our Montevideo, on 21 and 28 June 2003, taking a total sample of 80 respondents. It is clear that unfortunately due to problems concerning distances, could not make this survey in various regions of the country, although we believe that a survey of this magnitude is beyond the primary objective of the course, we have no doubt that we had made a lot of ideas and information. Here is the form used in the survey. Survey Form Topic: biodiesel Name (optional): ________________________ Age: __________ Sex: Male__, Female__ Education level: __ incomplete primary complete primary __ incomplete secondary __ complete secondary __ incomplete tertiary __ complete tertiary __ Details of respondent: Poll 2.1 Functions of the University (The purpose of this question is to consult the respondent on the functions of the University, without providing any options, ie, the following options will be marked only if respondent mentions) Professional training ___ encourage the development of research processes ___ teaching of cultural and artistic activities ___ conducting outreach processes ___ defend moral values, human rights, and the welfare of society ___ Other: _________________________________________________ In his view, what are the main objectives of the University of the Republic? Among the points mentioned below, what do you think are conducted by the University of the Republic?, Answer yes or no: higher education in cultural and artistic activities. Yes__, No__ Yes__, No__ professional training in various branches of the activities mentioned in the previous section, as well as enabling them to develop relevant tasks. Yes__, No__ Encouraging the development of new processes and cultural research, and the corresponding diffusion in society. Yes__, No__ develop outreach processes, studying the problems facing society, to try to find a solution or at soon reduce their severity. Participate in whole or in part in the political activities of our country Yes__, No__ defend moral values, human rights and social welfare. Yes__, No__ 2.2 Research of biodiesel. Yes__, No__ If the answer to the previous question was yes, then briefly describe its meaning. ________________________________ (If the answer was no, then give a brief description of this fuel, highlighting the feasibility of producing fully in our country not only by the presence of this fuel feedstock but also requires the existence of Uruguayan professionals who investigate) Do you know what is biodiesel? As we know, today's fuels are all petroleum products and therefore are non-renewable, in addition to this we must add the fact that Uruguay is basically an importer of the product, while oil production would reach a country farm like ours. Despite these advantages, do you consider that biodiesel could become viable in our market? Yes__, No__, NS / NC____ What obstacles do you think Uruguay could arise in trying to market this product? obstacles impositivas__ obstacles políticas__ problems of acceptance by the sociedad__ other: ________________________________________________________ Given that this alternative fuel, does not require any alteration in the motor vehicle, Would you trust this new technology? Yes__, No__, No sabe__ The leaves of the surveys are presented at the end of this report, in the Appendix section. To implement a good analysis of the survey, we decided to pass all information to a program that would allow us to manage databases and thus able to relate the variables that interested us. The program used was Microsoft Excel. Like the leaves of the forms, the form data is presented in the Annex, as well as the attached floppy. Functions of the University of the Republic Ask) As mentioned, the purpose of this question was to consult the respondent about the functions of the University, but without providing any information at the same time. The idea was then to observe what people responded immediately address this question, considering therefore that the functions of the University mentioned at this point is that the respondent considers most important. Like everything in life, one thing is what one would expect of them and what else is actually obtained. In this question we expected somewhat disappointing results, and unfortunately so were. Below is a chart summarizing the results obtained in this question. Graph 1. Ask) As can be seen the vast majority of respondents replied that the most important function of the university is to train professionals, dismissing the rest of the tares that it plays. Obviously there is a big problem then, perhaps in the university dismissively to the other functions that should meet, or the company itself, not knowing the tasks carried out in the same due to a communication problem. This question will be raised and will be discussed later. Question b) As often happens the answer to a question rebuilds other questions, this is what happened in the question). Anticipating the possible outcomes of the previous question, is that the question was made b). The aim of the meeting was to consult the respondent about the functions of our university, but this time in a timely manner so that this question had six parts. Question b) i): In his view, the University conducts teaching arts and cultural activities? As was discussed in Section: Functions of the University, the answer to this question should be yes. Below is a chart that summarizes in detail the results obtained. Chart 2. Question b) i) In this question we take personal data of each respondent to relate the response to the level of education. As can be seen, the results are quite encouraging, and even highlights the fact that the answers seem to be quite independent of education level of respondents. Question b) ii): In his view, the University conducts professional training in various fields, as well as enabling them to develop the relevant tasks? As in the previous question, the answer should be yes. Fortunately, the respondents agreed with expectations, showing even better than in the previous question. The following graph illustrates the responses collected. Chart 3. Question b) ii) You can see the large percentage of affirmative responses independently of education level, confirming the fact that society's primary function is to train university professionals. These results are very good, but as we know the training of professionals is not the only task performed by the University, and as outlined above, the answers to the following points were somewhat disappointing. Question b) iii): In his view, the University encourages the development of new processes and cultural research, and the corresponding diffusion in society? Bearing in mind that this work is one of the main objectives of the study research projects being carried out at the University, particularly the study of biodiesel, the question b) iii) is particularly important for the development of this report. The following graph shows the results obtained in the survey.

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